Sabtu, 07 April 2012

Preposition In, On, & At

Prepositions: In, On, and At (with specific times and places)
The prepositions inon, and at can be used to indicate time and place. Notice how they are used in the following situations:
Year, Month, In 1999, In December
Country, State, City In Japan, In Utah, InTaipei
Day, Date On Saturday, On May 1
Street On Main Street, On 1st Ave.
Time At 8:00, At 7:30
Address At 815 East Main Street
In many languages, there is only one preposition for the above situations. In English there are three. Just remember that in usually indicates the "largest" time or place, and at usually indicates the "smallest" time or place.
A: Where's your office?
B: In Taipei, Taiwan.
A: Really? What part of Taipei?
B: It's on Chung Shan North Road.
A: I know that area. Where exactly is it?
B: It's at 105 Chung Shan North Road, next to the bookstore.
C: When is the wedding?
D: It's in June.
C: What day?
D: It's on Saturday, the 25th.
C: What time?
D: It starts at 6:00.
Prepositions with articles and locations
When talking about locations, use at to indicate the general vicinity or area, and in to indicate inside the building, enclosed area, etc. For example:
at the swimming pool (on site)
in the swimming pool (in the pool itself i.e. in the water)
at the post office/bank (general)
in the post office/bank (inside the building)
at the zoo (visitors, general area)
in the zoo (animals in their cages)
at school
in the classroom
Sample sentences:
I met my wife at the theater. (while watching a movie)
I spilled my drink in the theater (on the floor of the building)
She works at the library on Wednesdays.
She found a rare coin in the library (building).
Dr. Jones works at the hospital every day.
John was in the hospital for a week with a broken leg.
For schoolprison, and churchthe is used to indicate the building. No article indicates the general situation. Note the following:
in school (studying, listening to teacher, etc.)
in the school (building)
in jail/prison (staying there as a criminal)
in the jail/prison (temporary)
in church (praying, listening to a sermon, etc.)
in the church (building)
Where's Dad?
in church (attending services)
in the church (fixing the windows)
at church
at the church
in prison (He committed a crime.)
at the prison (visiting his friend)

Vocabulary Around The House

Other Rooms

People store things in the attic.
A room in stately homes where rich people dance and concerts are held.
Box Room
A small room used for storage.
Underneath the house.
A small room where people put their coats.
A greenhouse attached to a house for the display of plants.
Dining Room
A room where people eat (see eating at home).
Drawing Room
A room in stately homes where rich people entertain.
Games Room
A room in large houses where games are played.
The entrance passage to a house.
A small room used for the storage of food.
A room where books are kept.
Another name for living room.
Music Room
A room where people play music.
A room where people work.
A small room used to store kitchen and dining items.
Old fashioned word for living room.
Sitting Room
Another name for living room.
Spare Room/
Guest Room
A room where guests sleep.
A room where people go to the toilet (often known as WC)
Utility Room
A room where appliances such as washing machines are used.

Things you may find around the house



box (es)    
light bulb(s)



ceiling light(s)

shelf (shelves)

Plug (s)

Battery (Batteries)

Photo (s)

Asking for Information with WH Questions

The use of WH-Questions
  • What 
  • When
  • Where
  • Why
  • Who
  • Whose
  • Whom
  • How
  • Combined with to be 
    • What is ……. your name? 
    • When was ……. he born? 
    • Where are ………. the tickets? 
    • Why were …………. they here?  
    • Who are ……….. those people? 
    • Whose................. is this? 
    • With/To/For whom.......... you go?
    • How is ……. Helen?
  • Combined with auxiliary verbs or Modals 
    • What do …………
    • When did …………
    • Where shall ……..
    • Why does ……..
    • Who might …..
    • How could …….
    • etc
  • Asking for information: 
    • I’d like to know about this novel 
    • I’m interested in the characters
    • Could you tell me more about it? 
    • Do you know the plot? 
    • Could you find out the solution? 
    • Could I ask about the conflict? 
    • Do you happen to know the writer?
  • Asking for information: 
    • I’d like to know ……………… 
    • I’m interested in ………………..
    • Could you tell me ………........?
    • Do you know ………………?
    • Could you find out …………………?
    • Could I ask ……………………..?
    • Do you happen to know ………….?
  • Guessing: 
    • I’d say … I know where to find the book 
    • It could be … somewhere in the library 
    • Perhaps it’s … on the top of the shelf 
    • I think it’s … not there anymore 
    • It looks like … someone has taken the book 
    • It’s difficult to say, but I’d guess … 
    • It’s being borrowed by a student.

Modals In The Past Form

Modals are helping words that are used to express:

  •         possibility
  •          ability
  •          degree of certainty
  •          level of authority
Kinds of modals such as:
·         Can
·         could
·         may
·         might
·         must
·       bought to
·         shall
·         should
·         will
·         would.

Modals in the past form are used in the past time.They are could, would, should, and might. Formula of modals is:
-     Modals + verb 1 + O/C:
·         Can be used in every tenses
·         Could is the past tense of can
1. The modal auxiliary could is used:
-                                To express an ability in the past:
                   Ex: I could always beat you at tennis when we were kids.
-                                To express past or future permission:
                   Ex: Could I bury my cat in your back yard?
-                                To express present possibility:
                   Ex: We could always spend the afternoon just sitting around talking
-                                To express possibility or ability in contingent circumstances.
                   Ex: If he studied harder, he could pass this course.

2. When could is used in the past, it means was able to.
                   Example: I was able to find a parking space.
3. Would is the past tense of will
·                               The modal auxiliary would is used:

  •                                              to express a repeated action in the past
  •                                              to express more polite (request) 
4. When would is used in the past, it means “used to”.
                   For example: When I was younger, I would run two hours every day.
           This means that I used to run two hours every day and now I don`t.
5. When would is used in the present, it show more polite.
·                            For unreal condition
                   Ex: Mary would go to the Caribbean, but she doesn`t have enough money.(present)
                   Ex: Mary would have gone to the Carribbean, but she didn`t have money.(past tense)
6. Would, can is used in the past and present.
7. Might is the past tense of may.
·                             Is used to express of granting or seeking permission.
                   Ex: Might, I leave class early?
·                            To express future possibility.
                   Ex: She might be my advisor next semester.
·                           To express past possibility.
                   Ex: Ann came late this morning, she might have missed the bus.
8. Might is considerably more tentative than may
9. Should is the past tense of shall.
          Most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express                  obligation as well as expectation.

  •                                             When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Postdam. (recommendation)
  •                                             You should focus more on your family and less on work. (advice)
  •                       I really should be in the office by 7:00 am. (obligation)
  •                       By now, they should already be in Dubai. (expectation)
Example in dialogue:
Chika: Hi Eka! Are you busy?
Eka: No, I`m not busy. What`s happen?
Chika: Oh, good. I want you help me. Would you help me, please?
Eka: Yes, why not? What can I do for
Chika: Hm, help me please, to clean my
garden now.
Eka: No. I won`t. Sorry.

Rizky: Oh. I miss grandchild. I want
to meet him.
Fanny: Don`t be sad grandma, Andre
might visit us on Saturday.
Rizky: Really.? Oh, I`m so happy.
Fanny: Of course.

can't have
e.g. I can't have lost my keys! (I'm sure I didn't)

e.g. When I was a teenager, I could go out as late as I wanted.
general ability
e.g. Tom could walk by the age of 8 months.

could have
possibility, but did not happen
e.g. I could have passed my driving test if I'd really tried.
e.g. I guess it could have been Sandra on the phone.

e.g. When I was a teenager, I couldn't stay out as late as I wanted.
general ability
e.g. I couldn't walk until I was 2.
ability in a particular situation
e.g. I tried hard but I couldn't persuade him to go to the party with us.

couldn't have
e.g. I couldn't possibly have passed my driving test, even if I'd tried harder.
e.g. It couldn't have been Sandra on the phone, could it?
with comparative adjectives
e.g. I couldn't have asked for better weather on my wedding day.
e.g. I couldn't have left the dog in the car for long (so I didn't).

didn’t need to
unnecessary action not done
e.g. As I was alone this weekend, I didn't need to do any cooking (so I didn't).

had to
obligation (past form of must)
e.g. I couldn't go out last night because I had to do my homework.

may have
e.g. I guess I may have been a bit hard on her when she came home an hour late.

may not have
e.g. He may not have found out yet that he has passed the test.

might have
possibility (didn't happen)
e.g. You might have been killed!
e.g. I guess I might have been a bit hard on her when she came home an hour late.
annoyance at someone's failure to do something
e.g. You might have told me that you had invited all your colleagues round for dinner!
might have known + would (idiom to ironically express that somebody's action was typical)
e.g. I might have known that he would finish with me as soon as he found out I wasn't wealthy!

might not have
e.g. He may not have found out yet that he has passed the test.

must have
e.g. He must have known how much it was going to cost. (I'm sure he knew.)
with surely in exclamations
e.g. Surely he must have known how much it was going to cost!

needn't have
unnecessary action that was actually done
e.g. Oh, you needn't have done the washing up!

ought not to have
criticism (more common is shouldn't have)
e.g. You ought not to have been so frank with him.

ought to have
expectation (should have is more common)
Why is she late? She ought to have arrived by now!

should have
Why is she late? She should have arrived by now!
should have + verbs of thinking
e.g. I should have thought you knew.
with be and adjectives, describing chance
e.g. It was weird that you should have been staying in the same hostel last month.
criticism (you didn't do something, but it would have been the right thing to do)
e.g. The party was such fun last night! You should have come!

shouldn't have
e.g. You shouldn't have been so frank with him.
polite expression of thanks on receiving a gift or favour
"Here's a bottle of wine for you"
"Oh, you really shouldn't have!"

would have
events in the past that did not happen
e.g. I wouldn't have gone out with him, but he didn't ask me.
e.g. Oh, that would have been Sarah on the phone just now.     

would not
e.g. I asked Tom to close the window, but he wouldn't do it.